Nurture Heritability estimate for monozygotic twins =.50 (50% of variability) Dyzygotic twins no more similar than unrelated individuals University of Minnesota studies Slide 26 Heritability of Traits Traditionalism – measure of conservative values (.60) Opposition to the death penalty (.50) Genetic predispositions influence attitudes individual attends to and adopts Slide 27 Environmental Influences Not unimportant, but less important than assumed 2 kids raised in same environment will experience that environment very differently Scarr (1981) – compared non-twin adopted kids with (a) bio sibs and (b) adoptive sibs Bio siblings more similar than adopted No more similar to adoptive sibs than strangers Slide 28 Personality as mental processes 1 Psychodynamic 2 Social cognitive 3 Humanistic Slide 29 Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize the interplay of mental forces a people are often unconscious of their motives b processes called defense mechanisms work to keep unacceptable drives/urges out of consciousness Personality differences lie in unconscious motives & how they are ultimately manifested Slide 30 Psychodynamic Theories Freud - to understand patient’s problems/personality, must learn about content of unconscious Conscious thought a poor reflection of true wants, needs, desires unconscious “leaks” (Freudian slips, dreams, free associations) Slide 31 Psychodynamic Theories Drives equivalent to physical forms of energy build up, must be released to function in society, must learn to direct sexual/aggressive drives in acceptable ways Defense mechanisms serve to reduce anxiety by keeping unacceptable drives out of consciousness Slide 32 Defense mechanisms Repression: anxiety-produc9ing thoughts pushed and kept out of consciousness “I don’t remember much about my childhood” repression dams up mental energy “leaks” are dealt with via other defense mechanisms Slide 33 Defense mechanisms Displacement: unconscious wish/drive that would be unacceptable to conscious mind is redirected toward acceptable alternative breast feeding -- cigarette smoking, eating Sublimation: channeling one’s energies towards behaviors valued by society E.g., corporate killers, surgeons Slide 34 Defense mechanisms Reaction formation: turning a frightening wish into its safer opposite Norman Bates - Hate Mom vs.
These saboteurs are the most difficult to deal with, particularly if they have power over you in a work or social group setting.
Extroversion High scorers: enthusiastic, gregarious, playful, happy-go-lucky, energetic, talkative, confident, optimistic Low scorers: unsociable, nonverbal, detached, unadventurous, moody Slide 16 3.
Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) High Scorers: unexcitable, unemotional, autonomous, individualistic Low Scorers: insecure, anxious, touchy, emotional, anxious Slide 15 2.
Visceratonic: cheerful, calm, relaxed Slide 8 Constitutional Theory Ectomorphic Cerebrotonic Mesomorphic Somatotonic Endomorphic Viscerotonic Slide 9 Raymond Cattell (1950) Chemist Molecules to atoms Traits to personality 18,000 adjectives reduced to 170 Self report surveys & factor analysis Identified 16 central traits Slide 10 Cattell’s 16 Central Traits 1.
Nurture Agreeableness - Antagonism (females more concerned about establishing/maintaining relationships) Women higher on Conscientiousness and Neuroticism Men tend to be higher on sensation seeking (decreases with age) Slide 51 Cummulative Material for Final Exam PSYCO 106 Slide 52 Correlation coefficients What are they?
They have a survival mentality and may be jealous and controlling.